Armenia Climate Change
Armenia Climate Background
Armenia’s climate zones, as well as the seasonal cycle of mean temperature and precipitation according on the most recent climatology (1991-2020). The Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which is the basis for climate zone classifications, categorizes climates into five primary groupings based on seasonal precipitation and temperature trends.
A is for tropical, B for arid, C for a transitional climate, D for a continental climate, and E for a very cold climate (polar). Except for the E group, all other climates have been classified according to their seasonal precipitation patterns (second letter).
When you move the mouse pointer over the legend, you’ll see the different climate categories. After the visuals, there follows a narrative introduction to the background and current state of Armenia.
Armenia has a highland continental climate, with significant seasonal contrast between the warmest months (June–August) and the coldest months (December–February) (December to February). Because of its complex topography, the country experiences a wide variety of climates, from the desert to the subtropical to the frigid, high mountains.
Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, experiences average summer temperatures of 30–33 degrees Celsius and average winter temperatures of 1–3 degrees Celsius. The average temperature is lower and the snow stays on the ground longer in the mountainous regions. Annual rainfall is below normal, averaging just 526 millimeters on average (mm).
The months of May and June tend to be the wettest across all of Armenia, however the heaviest precipitation is concentrated in the country’s higher altitudes. Temperature and precipitation patterns across Armenia are mostly determined by elevation.
Although the western plains of Armenia are relatively low in elevation, they endure the country’s highest average temperatures. Similarly, the driest regions of western Armenia might get yearly precipitation as low as 200 millimeters, while the wettest regions in the east can see as much as 1,000 millimeters.
Armenia Climate Change and Variability
The historical climatic data backdrop for Armenia’s present climatology (1991-2020). Having a firm grasp of current climatic circumstances is essential for appreciating future climate scenario projections and expected change, and this can be accomplished through the use of information.
Data for the present climate can be represented visually in a number of ways, including through regional variation, the seasonal cycle, and as a time series. Yearly and seasonal data can be analyzed separately. The data are aggregated at the national level by default, but you can switch to the sub-national level by clicking on a sub-national unit within a country.
Changing the time range will allow you to view climate data for different time periods. In the Data Download page, you can get information about specific locations.
The Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia collects and compiles observed, historical data. The data is displayed with a resolution of 50 x 50 kilometers (0.50 degrees) in both directions.
Armenia Climate Change and Climate Variability
Past, present, and future climatic trends must always be interpreted in light of the inherent variability of the climate system. The term “climate variability” is used here to describe the normal “spectrum of variability” for a given climatic variable, such as annual temperature or rainfall.
This randomness in nature may have its roots in the connected atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system (as weather variability is drawn out over many years). The variability brought on by El Nio and the Southern Oscillation is a classic example of this type of causation.
Volcanic eruptions and other violent natural phenomena can also play a role as periodic “forcing” events. The term “internal climate variability” is used to collectively refer to these external influences (natural forcing as well as internal factors).
There is always some degree of internal climate fluctuation, which may be greater or less pronounced at different times. Because of this, climatology can only be grasped as a mean with fluctuation surrounding it. In some places, and for some variables, the interannual fluctuation can be rather substantial (e.g., the high latitudes), whereas in others it can be quite minor (i.e., temperatures in the tropics).
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and the consequent variations in atmospheric concentrations (i.e. CO2, methane), in addition to changes in land surface and aerosol, impose a different forcing on the climate system compared to natural variability.
The process of looking for signals of climate change involves isolating the effects of these changes from the effects of natural background variability. That signal may manifest as either an increase or decrease in the standard deviation of the data over time.
This page divides the past seventy years into three distinct time intervals, each of which presents its own unique variability, trends, and significance of change. It’s there to supplement the perspectives on the climatology sites with more knowledge (Current Climatology- Climatology tab).
Each of the three sections discusses a different facet of the potential need to account for variability. The offered variables represent a subset of the whole indicator catalog for the sake of user friendliness. The ERA5 reanalysis is utilized on this page (here at a resolution of 0.5o x 0.5o) to extract not only the seasonal but also the daily variability.
Armenia’s persistently high poverty rates make the country more susceptible to climate change and other environmental problems. Earthquakes, especially the devastating Spitak earthquake of 1988, which claimed the lives of over 25,000 people, have been the most common and devastating natural disasters in Armenia.
Armenia is prone to mudflow and landslide (GFDRR: Armenia, 2017). Nearly a third of the country’s communities, covering about 4.1% of the land area, are at risk of landslides. There is a high risk of drought across a large portion of the country, and there is also a chance of flooding in several locations, especially the Ararat and Shirak valleys.
Annually, flooding affects over 40,000 individuals and costs the economy about $100 million. As the frequency and intensity of extreme weather occurrences grow as a result of global warming, so too do the chances of disasters caused by these factors.
Armenia Climate Change and Sea Areas
The melting of mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets is a major contributor to the increase in ocean water volume, and the expansion of water due to heat is another major contributor to the rise in global mean sea level caused by the planet’s overall warming.
Since 1880, the average sea level has risen between 210 and 240 millimeters (mm), with almost a third of the increase occurring in the previous two and a half decades.
The current rate of increase is roughly 3 mm each year. The winds and ocean currents in any given region are subject to natural variation, which can manifest itself over time scales ranging from a few days to several months or even years.
However, on a smaller scale, things like uplift (for example, persistent rebound from Ice Age glacier weight) or subsidence of the earth, changes in water tables owing to water extraction or other water management, and even the consequences from local erosion can have a significant role.
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